深入了解过去，建筑管理的现状和未来，with a focus on the impact of evolving demands,new possibilities,evolutions,物联网，新兴技术，and intelligent building management systems.
Alongside with these technological enablers and drivers,the growing focus on energy consumption,节能and ecological footprint are also key in the evolutions of the building management landscape.
Martin Feder knows everything about the past,present and future of building management andbuilding management systems(BMS).
Martin is,among others,responsible for the BMS partner and building management system certification badge ofEcoXpert,the awarded partner program of Schneider Electric.He has over 30 years of experience in the BMS field and takes us through a journey across the building automation evolutions,challenges,标准，drivers and solutions.As you will discover it is an increasingly accelerating reality whereby IoT is moving fast from its initial role in the management and control levels of building management systems and building automation to an expanded usage across the entire building towards the edge with intelligent building management systems.IoT is one of the key drivers of theBMS marketas research reminds us and ‘smart buildings' is a major cross-industryIoT investment用例。
Martin,can you start by telling us a bit more about the BMS badge and the types and background of companies which are part of it and thus active in the BMS market?
Martin Feder:The Building Management badge is predominantly forsystem integratorsand partner companies which have been working in the building management and building automation field.
EcoXpert partners in BMS mainly have a mechanically HVAC(heating,ventilating and air conditioning)background.一些是由这个领域的大型供应商的前雇员管理的，他们决定推出自己的业务来服务客户。另一些是长期存在的公司，在暖通空调市场已经存在几十年，并在那里传递给下一代或被其他公司收购。
这是一个不断演变的景观，whereby the Internet of Things is a key game changer although the typical BMS partner has already evolved a lot in the last 30 to 40 years.Since their traditional main background is mechanical,他们最初为锅炉等暖通设备提供了相当简单的自动化服务。空气处理装置，商业建筑中的冷水机和热泵。多年来，他们的技能从传统的暖通空调控制，以及对在建筑中创造热量或制冷的基本热动力学的理解，转向了更高级的技能。
这包括专有级别的编程和网络技能，随着控制系统技术的发展和与第三方系统的集成，据此，for instance,了解照明系统和消防系统的工作原理以及安全访问控制和视频技术。Most BMS partners don't install the latter but they are able to connect to them.然而，this is changing too and that's where the Internet of Things comes even more in the picture.
Some of them already are used to this but for most it is a major change and,from the perspective of the EcoXpert BMS badge it's also a major swing.
IoT makes building management become more central (again)
所以，today it has increasingly become a mixed environment in the ongoingIT与OT的集成,在这种情况下，在BMS空间，在物联网变得更重要的时候，需要结合多个技能集来提供更具前瞻性的产品？What are some challenges in this regard?
Martin Feder:The integration of IT and OT is indeed key.Once challenge for partners is to understand how they can bring these two technologies together in order to create a building that will add value to the customer.
Interestingly,this convergence and integration,along with changing demands,is putting building management more central again.This is also related with the growing importance of energy in the whole commercial building management equation.In a sense,这也让我们回到了过去。
In the early days of building management,the systems were called building energy management systems (BEMS）Then people started dropping the ‘E' and talked about a building management system instead of an energy system.Later on,with the advent of the IT world of things,buildings were designed around the network connectivity.大约十年前，regulation and certification such as LEED（美国绿色建筑委员会证书）brought back the energy dimension in building management.
If you combine those evolutions,the Internet of Things and IT networks,there is somewhat of a debate as to whether the full IT needs to remain independent from the BMS or whether the BMS is part of the IT system.As you can imagine,IT executives aren't keen to have a BMS on the same bandwidth as the office network.这些都是我们的BMS认证项目面临的挑战。We also see an evolution happening in BMS and IoT with a shift to the edge and an impact on the thinking about the network.
Your colleague Kevin Morin,who is responsible for the EcoXpert Critical Power certification badge said that,within his field ofcritical power buildings,the use of separate networks can lead to security issues as IT security experts are often not involved in the building networks.你怎么看的？
Martin Feder: 这确实是BMS面临的挑战。We have seen cases in the markets whereby controls in a critical environment where hacked.这是施耐德电气多年来一直在解决的一个问题，就我们的经济专家而言，这不应该成为一个问题。
In the EcoXpert BMS certification program we provide the information BMS partners need.然而，作为制造商，Schneider Electric also designs and builds its products with security by design in mind.To do so we follow a US military standard which used to be known as DIACAP and has been moved to a more public domain framework,now called DIARMF.
These are protocols and test procedures that we put into our products and then run through the procedures to ensure that customers you have the latest antivirus and anti-hack profiles in any equipment.Anything with an IP connection is soon going to conform to these standards.
Intelligent building management and IoT – standards and protocols amidst the movement to the edge
Talking about standards,protocols and what you previously said about the edge: where do you see the Internet Of Things in smart buildings moving to in this regard?
Martin Feder:The BMS market has been using its own proprietary,标准，communication protocols for a long time.Examples include BACnet,LON,KNX and others which traditionally have been running via twisted pair,RS485 style cables.
Approximately 5 to 6 years ago the enterprise and server level of building managements systems started to use these protocols over IP: BACnet/IP,LON/IP and so forth.
Thanks to IP,which was perceived as the common ground,即使协议仍然不同，this led to the ‘easier' integration of other building systems and enabled the resulting increase of connectivity and flows of information.
Tomorrow's trend will be to move the field controllers,which are the actual control devices in the rooms and spaces,到IP级别，实现整个BMS的更快连接.
Towards autonomous decision making with IoT: building controls moving to the IP and field level
所以，更像是一种混合的方法，在这种方法中，人们倾向于保持网络的独立性，而不是将数据带来，analytics and insight to the edge.你能举一个更加自主决策的例子吗？
Martin Feder:The intelligence is indeed moving further and further in the field to the edge,远离所有数据存储和分析的中心部分，which enables to learn how the building is operating.
For an example of a decision making parts let's take a simple actuator that can decide whether it should open or close the flow of water or any other flow of energy in a room. The rooms become intelligent enough with IoT and can steer decisions based upon parameters such as activity in the room,the fact that no one has come in or has gone out and so forth.基于这些参数，it will decide to reduce energy consumption by having actuators close specific parts off and send a message to the front end about this decision and about how much energy is saved this way.
You expect that field controllers will move to the IP level next.What are the main IoT components today in a building environment and how do you see the evolution towards field controllers from an IoT technology perspective?
Martin Feder:The two levels which have been connected are the enterprise and management level: the computers and servers that are collecting all the data（企业）and the next level（管理）which we call main plant controllers.These are controllers that are out in the field but traditionally in environments such as the boiler room or on top of the roof where they measure the cooling and air handling.
In the next step come the mentioned field controllers,这是BMS的现场水平。 They are the controls that you don't see and will find,for instance in the office space,医院病房，a classroom and so on.They are up in the ceiling or behind a wall.The only thing you might see is a temperature sensor,the light switch and the controls that show you a number which you can move up or down.This is the next level that is moving to the IP IT domain.
We also see the first little actuators that sit on your radiator or control the actual airflow in a room.这些设备也在慢慢地连接起来，作为物联网发展的一部分，它们提供了一些优势，比如更少的布线。你不需要一直保持独立的通信线路，power and so on.There is view to runpower over Ethernetand plug into the IP networks,使安装时间理论上更快。然而，大楼里的一些部件是电动机，在这里你仍然需要外部电源和一些本地接线。
Energy efficiency in buildings is not a choice anymore: ecology,energy consumption and legislation in the intelligent building
We've touched upon the energy savings,能源效率and ecological aspects a few times,with a clear role for regulators.Would you say that in general regulations,生态和成本节约是市场的主要驱动力？
Martin Feder:它们是绝对的，尤其是立法.Before the Energy Performance and Building Directive (EPBD) was established within the European Union,having an idea of how much energy got used was one of the advantages which were already soughtbut building management was a bit of a reluctant thing.Since the legislation has come in in the EU and elsewhere,there is also a real value attached to the energy saving and environmental dimension of a building and an understanding of the importance of the whole greenness of the planet and energy consumption overall.
在美国也是如此，for instance,where you have the Green Building Council and the previously mentioned LEED（能源与环境设计领导）program which is all about environmentally friendly designs of buildings and systems.
That LEED certification has spread across the globe,among others because of the perceived value.It increases the asset price of the building and it's also easier to find tenants who care about ecology to move in and these are traditionally larger organizations who have their own environmental group departments that will not rent a building unless it meets certain criteria.后者也受到同行压力的驱动。
Last but not least,there is even more legislation that requires the building intelligence much faster than was the case in the past and that's becoming a trend.A large company such as manufacturer in Switzerland,例如，need to be able to tell its local authority on a year in advance basis how much energy is it going to reduce its consumption by.所以，在过去，这种心态是“你尝试过的，你没有成功，next year better',it shifts to a taxing on your energy consumption in case you missed the target.That requires a totally different approach whereby you need to see potential over-usage and its root causes almost in real-time.
A huge difference whereby IoT andbig dataanalytics can make a lot of difference indeed.最后一个问题：Ecoxpert计划和/或BMS认证的独特之处是什么？
Martin Feder:It is the holistic approach,the coverage,the product portfolio of Schneider Electric and in the BMS certification scope,the acquisition of all these different skill sets which are increasingly needed and also make our program evolve.
That holistic approach is unique to Schneider Electric and it is also what we are trying to achieve with a multi-badge approach whereby we want to bring a larger percentage of the pie in a building to our partners so they can do more and more profit on a single project.